REHAB FOR ALCOHOLICS

TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOLISM

Many practitioners and clinicians have come up with different methods of alcohol addiction treatment. This is not farfetched from the result of the various challenges posed by alcohol addiction.Treatment for alcohol addiction can be

Organized into three major approaches:

  1. Medical
  2. Psychological and
  3. Socio-cultural

Treatments often overlap, with psychologically oriented treatments using medications as additions and drug treatments being combined with psychological techniques. It is common to combine methods in the treatment of alcohol addiction having a potpourri of methods on a single treatment. In medical approach, there are three most commonly practiced methods of alcoholism treatment:

    1. Detoxification

Note, detoxification is not a cure, rather a first point of call treatment before a real cure. Detoxification involves the purging or classing of thee body system of the remnants of alcohol and its chemical deposits from the body system. The process cam]n be by the use of organic material or synthetic materials.Alcohol; like all other substances of abuse tend to pose the danger of grave withdrawal symptoms especially when the patient is trying to free himself from the hold of the bottle. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms can be from mild to very severe and life threatening. It can come in fits of nausea and vomiting, loss of appétit, restlessness and sleeplessness. A thumping and racing heart, hypertension and severe headache; what detoxification does is to rid or flush the body system of the harmful chemicals that have been introduced therein

    1. The use of antidepressants

Another method is the use of drugs that do not pose grave side effects or withdrawal symptoms for the treatment of patients. Antidepressant alters the mood of patients. There has been a long history of the use of antidepressants for the treatment of alcoholism Tricyclic antidepressants and lithium are the most commonly used and know antidepressants used for the treatment of alcoholism. There has been controversies on the actual safety on the use of these drugs to the health and well-being of the patients. There has been recorded issues of fatality when these drugs a mistakenly ingested with the alcohol, Also, it is worthy to note that, these medications treat the affective disorder associated with alcohol abuse, but not alcoholism itself.

    1. Psychological Approach

This method of treatment understudies the psych of the patient and works on it. There are different forms of psychological treatments as with medical treatment, making it difficult to classify them.This method bases its treatment using the behavioral approaches, Taking so many factors into consideration. Other psychological therapies (including non-behavioral and the related systems approaches), while extensively employed generally, have been used less frequently to treat alcoholism specifically.Note,,behavioral treatments are used in conjunction with other psychological treatments as part of broad-spectrum treatment packages

    1. Non-behavioral Psychotherapies

This method is also under psychological approach, it is not limited in approach, has variations. Example is non-behavioral psychotherapies. This method uses the one-to-one method to diagnose, There has been a series of criticisms that that non-behavioral psychotherapies are effective because they deal with the underlying problems of an alcoholic, rather than the symptoms. Nonetheless, all psycho the rapies have been criticized as being difficult to use with alcoholics.

    1. Systems Approaches

In this method, the focus is on the family interactions are held at the family level to teach them a way of proper interaction with the patient and in particular, on family communication patterns.There is the belief that the way the family communicates with the patient can have both negative and positive influence and effect on the alcoholic. It is a belief that negative words used on the alcoholic can put him into pressure during the recovery process and eventually force him to resume drinking. This method teaches the family proper communication technique.

    1. Socio-cultural Approaches

This has to do with the changing of the social environment of the alcoholic. It is believed to be very efficient in the healing process. The alcoholic should be very far from those friends, those influences or any other circumstance or occurrence in the environment that has influenced him into the habit. This is hinged on the belief that a change in the environment will usher in the new life been intended with a clinging to the old forms in the previous social environment. A quick solution to this poser is to move that alcoholic to a home or a facility. Clinicians say, it is equivalent to building a new socio-cultural environment for the patient.

    1. Combination of Treatments

Like mentioned, it is rare for a singular treatment administration on alcoholics. There is always that mixture or combination of different forces of treatment on alcoholics. Whichever maybe the major treatment employed, there are still other supporting treatments to move the pace of the healing and recovery process.

 

 

HEALTH EFFECTS

The health effects of alcohol related diseases is much, however, the rise in the number of those that fall into the pit are overwhelming with a record high every year. Some of the health challenges posed by alcoholism are :

  • Liver failure: This is mostly caused by the absorption of toxic chemicals from the alcohol into the liver. The liver get injured over time am it will suddenly fail to function
  • The heart: Some of the cases of cardiac arrests recorded are as a result of alcohol abuse. The heart is over labored with the influence of alcohol in the system causing always to palpitate. The heart tends to beat faster and at times thumping in other to cope with the pressure exacted on it by the negative signals from the brain as the alcohol excites the gratification membrane with the resultant euphoria. ‘
  • Alcohol saps the blood, and over time, the patient will become frail, worn out and emaciated. The eyes are always bloodshot, with unhealthy distended lips, unhealthy gums and thinning hair.
  • Death: Death is always inevitable with prolonged use of alcohol. The patient may suffer from dementia and erratic behavior with the resultant “high” when alcohol takes over the blood stream, the result it untimely death.

SOCIAL EFFECTS

There are a whole lot of social problems posed by alcohol addiction.

  • Neglect of social and domestic responsibilities is one major problem and the course of so many divorces. The alcoholic will be unable to carter for his family, is one of them and another identified problem is aggression leasing to violence. And battering of wife and children
  • Accidents area major challenge posed by alcoholics. Either to themselves or to others. Whichever the case, alcoholics are prone to accidents. In the period of imbalance, a lot happen. Some have fallen over cliffs and from building and baths. There have also been cases of drowning as a result of alcohol influence.
  • Unwholesome practices are also a problem of alcoholics. They break the law with impunity. Example is drunk driving. Even when they know that the law is against drunk driving.
  • Nonproductive and loss of job are also associated with alcohol addiction. Some go late to work, others boycott or stop by themselves. Also, they are likely to be less productive under the influence of alcohol.

REHABILITATION

An alcoholic needs the patience, help and support of family and friends to recover from the state of fall. Learn to use good choices of wards when addressing him. Do not be provoked, learn to hear him out. Give him an ear.

Alcohol treatment and rehabilitation can be as an inpatient or as an outpatient. Inpatients remain in the facility under the care of nurses and caregivers who follow up on every medication or session of therapy as the patient is gradually cured and purged fro the chemical influence of the alcohol.

Outpatients do not live in the faculty. They go to the facility in the mornings, take their medication and do whatever exercise or therapy that they are earmarked to and go to their homes in the evening to resume the next day.

Recovery and reoperation are accessed under the guidelines of service user outcomes and assessed through progress towards measurable out comes as shown thus:

  • Reduction of alcohol consumption or abstinence
  • Reduction in alcohol dependence
  • Amelioration of alcohol‐related health or social problems
  • General improvement in health and social functioning

There is also the ATP which takes into cognizance the treatment procedure. It is an integrated pathway that describes the nature and anticipated course of treatment for a particular person and a pre‐determined plan of treatment. Alcohol treatment pathways (ATPs) are locally agreed templates for best practice. They map out the local help available for people with alcohol related problems at the various stages of a treatment journey.

An Alcohol Treatment Pathway (APC) follows the following laid down principles and guidelines for the implementation of the process.

  • Primary Care ATP, with IBA or referral for specialist assessment
  • Structured treatment in community specialist clinical alcohol services
  • Specialist inpatient assisted alcohol withdrawal (detoxification)
  • Specialist clinical alcohol service, assessing referrals for those with evidence of co‐morbid alcohol and possible mental health problems
  • An ATP for homeless people needing alcohol treatment.

In 2009, the NHS published a list of about 200 possible new indicators for quality care for patients with alcohol related problems:

  • Alcoholic hepatitis survival
  • Access to an alcohol specialist nurse within 24 hours of a detectedproblem34
  • Maintaining a register of patients with cirrhosis
  • Adherence to, and supervision of, detoxification regimes and vitamin supplementation
  • Clinical Governance structures
  • A patient, family and carers satisfaction mechanism for inpatients and out patients, with evidence of feedback adaptation.